Published on January 20th, 2021 | by HDG A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada | Full size image17
Bhakti, Active Engagement
The material world, because everything is temporary, so sometimes when we are fed up with material activities, we stop to do it and become a renouncer. Bhoga-tyaga. “Grapes are sour.” You know the story. A jackal entered into a vine orchard, and it was very high. It began to jump to get the grapes, but when he failed, he said, “Oh, these grapes are sour. It is nonsense.”
The Nectar of Devotion
Vrndavana, October 17, 1972
Pradyumna: (reading) “Every service has some attractive feature which drives the servitor progressively on and on.”
Prabhupada: It is not working?
Pradyumna: [break] “…devotional service. Every service has some attractive feature which drives the servitor progressively on and on. Everyone of us within this world is perpetually engaged in some sort of service and the impetus for such service is the pleasure we derive from it. Driven by affection for his wife and children, a family man works day and night. A philanthropist works in the same way for love of the greater family and a nationalist for the cause of his country and countrymen. That force which drives the philanthropist, the householder and the nationalist is called rasa, or…”
Prabhupada: So bhakti is explained, “Bhakti is some active service.” It is not a sentiment. And service means work. Not like the karmis. Karmi or anyone who is working, he is working with some taste. Just like the example is given here: A householder is working day and night. Unless he has got some taste… Suppose one has got wife and children. So to maintain them he has to work very hard. But there is some pleasure in serving the wife and children. This is crude example. Similarly, bhakti means service with some taste. Svadu svadu pade pade. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said, svadu svadu pade pade. The more you serve, the more you relish taste. Without relishing taste, nobody can render devotional service. It is practical. Svadu svadu pade pade. In every step… Just like Rupa Gosvami. He was minister in the government of Nawab Hussain Shah. So materially, he was getting honor, money, and therefore he was attached. This is also crude example. So he resigned from the government post and he joined Caitanya Mahaprabhu. So unless he tasted something better, how could he give up his government service? There must be some taste. So that is being explained here. Go on.
Pradyumna: “That force which derives… That force which drives the philanthropist, the householder and the nationalist is called rasa, or a kind of mellow, or relationship, whose taste is very sweet. Bhakti-rasa is a mellow different from the ordinary rasa enjoyed by mundane workers. Mundane workers labor very hard day and night in order to relish a certain kind of rasa which is understood as sense gratification. The relish or taste of the mundane rasa does not long endure and therefore mundane workers are always apt to change their position of enjoyment. A businessman is not satisfied by working the whole week. Therefore, wanting a change for the weekend, he goes to a place where he tries to forget his business activities. Then, after the weekend is spent in forgetfulness, he again changes his position and resumes his actual business activities. Material engagement means accepting a particular status for some time and then changing it. This position of changing back and forth is technically known as bhoga-tyaga, which means a position of alternating sense enjoyment and renunciation.”
Prabhupada: The material world, because everything is temporary, so sometimes when we are fed up with material activities, we stop to do it and become a renouncer. Bhoga-tyaga. “Grapes are sour.” You know the story. A jackal entered into a vine orchard, and it was very high. It began to jump to get the grapes, but when he failed, he said, “Oh, these grapes are sour. It is nonsense.” (laughter) The karmis are like that, that they work very hard, but they cannot relish any permanent happiness. That is not possible. Therefore they give up. Brahma satyam jagan mithya. They give up these worldly activities as false. Jagan mithya. But they do not relish anything. Actually they do not relish what is Brahma-sukha. Therefore again they fall down. Many… The jnani sannyasis, they give up this world as jagat mithya, “This world is false.” They take sannyasa. Then, after working for some time, they again take to political activities, philanthropic activities. They see that “The people are suffering for want of education, for want of food. So let me engage in providing food, shelter, education.” But this education, food problem is there in the material world. The Mayavadi sannyasis, if they think that this world is false, why he is agitated by the sufferings of the world? It is false. But the thing is that in the spiritual field, because they have no engagement, advanced engagement…
So this so-called sannyasi, brahma satyam jagan mithya… [Break]
…in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, aruhya krcchrena param padam tato patanty adhah [SB 10.2.32].
Brahma satyam jagan mithya. Jagat is not mithya. To the Vaisnava, to the devotee, we cannot accept that this jagat, this world is false. No. How it can be false? Suppose you enter in a very beautiful garden, very nicely trees, (indistinct) so many nice flowers, building. Everything is, they are nice. The proprietor of the garden takes you to show you. And if you say, “Oh, it is all mithya,” then how much depressed he becomes, just see. “I brought this friend to show the beauty of this garden, and he says it is mithya.” Similarly, we won’t want to depress Krsna. (laughter) That is not our business. Krsna has created this nice world. Everything is very nice. The sun is rising just in exact time. It is setting in exact time. The moon is rising. The seasons are changing. And we are getting nice food, nice fruit, nice flowers. So we are not so de…, I mean to say, depressing agent. We won’t discourage Krsna. Why? Krsna has created this nice world. How can I say it is mithya? It is the by-product of Krsna’s energy. So Krsna’s energy cannot be false. It is eternal. Krsna is eternal. Krsna says in the Bhagavad-gita that this material world, bhumir apo analo vayuh kham buddhir mana eva ca, bhinna me prakrtir astadha. “These are eight kinds of separated energy of Me, Krsna.” So Krsna’s energy… Krsna is truth. So Krsna’s energy is also truth. Because form truth, false cannot come. If Krsna is truth, this energy is also truth. But it is not false. Therefore we do not accept this Mayavadi theory that the world is false, jagan mithya. We say that Brahman is satya, and this world is also satya.
The difference is that a devotee relishes a particular type of mellow, rasa, in this material world. But the, those who are not devotees, they do not feel any relish from this material world. They feel for some time, but when it becomes stale in their taste, they say, “It is false.” Just like the same example: The jackal first of all tried to get the grapes, jumping, jumping, and when it was a failure, he said, “Oh, the grapes are sour. I don’t require.” So except devotee… The nondevotees, the karmis, jnanis, yogis, they actually do not relish the sweetness of the creation of Krsna. Therefore Bhagavata says, ye ‘nye ‘ravindaksa vimukta-maninah. “So persons who are thinking that they have become liberated by their own ways,” ye ‘nye ‘ravindaksa, ye ‘nye ‘ravindaksa vimukta-maninah tvay asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah, “actually they have not tasted the Absolute Truth. Therefore their intelligence is not yet purified.” Avisuddha-buddhayah. Anyone who has not reached to the point of surrendering to Krsna, it is to be understood that his intelligence is in, still incomplete. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said, bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. Actually one who is wise,actually, not falsely,then after many, many births of struggling in karma, jnana, yoga, he surrenders to Krsna. When he actually becomes wise. Jnanavan.
There is a Bengali verse, krsna ye bhaje se bada catura? Yes. Unless one is very wise and intelligent, he cannot become a devotee of Krsna. The first-class intelligent class of men surrenders to Krsna. Just like Arjuna. Arjuna, after understanding Bhagavad-gita, he replied to Krsna, karisye vacanam tava [Bg. 18.73], “Yes, I’ll do.” In the beginning, he was posing himself as very nice man, renounced. “My dear Krsna, the other side is my brothers, my grandfather, my teacher, Dronacarya, my nephews, my son-in-laws, all my relatives. So I do not wish to fight. Let them enjoy.”
That was Arjuna’s decision, in the beginning. And thus Bhagavad-gita was taught to him. But after teaching Bhagavad-gita to Arjuna, Krsna inquired from him, “Now what is your position? Your illusion is over or not? What you have decided to do now?” He said, “Yes, my illusion is over.” Karisye vacanam tava [Bg. 18.73]. “What You are saying, I shall act.” This is Bhagavad-gita understanding. Sarva-dharman parityaja mam ekam saranam vraja. Then Arjuna went against his first decision. In the beginning he was nonviolent. But he changed. He become violent. Violent means he fought. He was a warrior. He was ksatriya. His business was to fight when there is necessity. But in the beginning he was illusioned. Karpanya-doso upahata-svabhavah. Svabhavah, by nature, he was fighter, warrior, but karpanya-dosa, being miserly, upahata svabhavah, he’s going, he was going against his nature. And after understanding Bhagavad-gita, he was posed in his real nature. So… [break]
Sthane sthitah sruti-gatam tanu-van-manobhih. This is the instruction given by Lord Brahma and accepted by Lord Caitanya. Sthane sthitah. “Let everyone remain in his position.” A brahmana… Position means, catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah [Bg. 4.13]. According to different qualities,goodness, passion, ignorance, there are different divisions of the society, catur-varnyam. The brahmana. The brahmana means most learned. Most learned means one who knows the Absolute Truth, brahma janati iti brahmanah. So there must be a section of the learned. There must be a section of the administrators, ksatriyas. There must be a section, productive. (aside:) It is… It is disturbing me…
And there must be a section, worker. So catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah [Bg. 4.13]. The society must be divided… By natural way, it is divided: the intelligent class, the administrator class, the productive class, and the worker class. And they should cooperate. Then the society’s perfect. The same example: Just like in your body you have got divisions, the head division, the arms division, the belly division and the leg division. It is not that leg is less important than the head. But leg is… Head is most important. Without head, the arms, the belly, or the leg cannot work. So there should be cooperation. But the division must be there. This is the vision of Krsna. And Krsna conscious persons. They do not say it is false. They utilize everything for the purpose of Krsna. That is Krsna consciousness movement. Most scientific and authorized movement. Trying to place people in his original, constitutional position and cooperate for the service of Krsna. That is Krsna consciousness movement.
And actually, when we relish some mellow, rasa, that is called bhakti-rasa. We are trying to explain Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu by Rupa Gosvami. So this is bhakti-rasa. The leg is serving the body under some rasa. The hand is serving the body under some rasa. The brain is serving the body under some rasa. So similarly… That is natural division, throughout the whole universe, anywhere. And because the whole universe is being carried on by the three modes of material nature, goodness, passion, ignorance… And there are mixture also. There are three: goodness, passion and ignorance. Just like there are three colors, yellow, red… (aside:) You stand on… You disturbing… Yellow, red and blue. And those who are artists, they mix with three colors and it becomes nine. And again, the nine into nine, it becomes eighty-one. In this way, all these divisions, different forms of living entities, they are being conducted under some modes of material nature, either pure or mixture. And therefore we find so many varieties. (aside:) Why don’t you put…? Yes. So many varieties of living entities. 8,400,000 species of life, forms. 8,400,000.
In this way, there are 8,400,000 species of life and Krsna claims: sarva-yonisu kaunteya sambhavanti murtayah yah [Bg. 14.4]. “All these forms, in different species of life, their mother is this material nature and I am the seed-giving father.” Aham bija-pradah pita. So Krsna… (Aside:) What you are doing with this…? This fly is disturbing me, and what you are doing? [break]
…claims everyone His son. Krsna says, does not say that “The Indians are My son, or the Hindus are My son.” No, Krsna does not say. So Krsna cannot be a sectarian God. God is one. God is for Hindus. God is for Muslims, God is for any other religious sect. And the definition of religion is that the law given by God. That’s all. Dharmam tu saksad bhagavat-pranitam [SB 6.3.19]. Just like law means the code or the order given by the state. You cannot manufacture law at home. When the state gives something to the citizens, that “You must follow this,” that is law. It may be very insignificant thing, but it is law. Just like when we go on the street, the law is, in, in this country, the law is “Keep to the left.” In other countries the law is “Keep to the right.” Yes. Germa… In America it is “Keep to the right.”
Guest (Indian man): Not so in China and Russia, I believe.
Prabhupada: There are different. You cannot say that “I am accustomed to drive my car from the left side. Why shall I go to the right?” No, the law is there. You have to abide by the law. Similarly, religion means the law given by Krsna, by God. That is religion. You cannot manufacture religion. Krsna… Dharmam tu saksad bhagavat-pranitam [SB 6.3.19]. Therefore real religion is to surrender to Krsna. Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66]. So actually, this Krsna consciousness movement is real religion. Everyone should follow this. Then he will be saved. Krsna assures, aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami.
People suffer out of ignorance. That is called papa, sin. Any criminal… Mostly, he does not know the real law. He commits something unknowingly, by ignorance, and he becomes a subject of criminal punishment. Therefore ignorance is sinful life. Ignorance. So people should be enlightened from ignorance. And that is real religion. One should be enlightened himself, and one should enlighten others also. That is the mission of Krsna consciousness. This is Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s mission. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, bharata-bhumite manusya janma haila yara [Cc. Adi 9.41]. Not the cats and dogs, animals. Manusya. On the land of Bharatavarsa, one who has taken his birth as a human being… This point is very important.
bharata-bhumite manusya janma haila yara
janma sarthaka kari’ koro paropakara [Cc. Adi 9.41]
Become… One can become successful in the mission of his life in India. Because the India, the real knowledge, Vedic knowledge, is there. All the sages and great personalities of India, Vyasadeva… He compiled all these Vedas for the enlightenment of the whole human society. So especially those who are born in India as human beings, they should take advantage of this knowledge. They should not manufacture knowledge. The knowledge is already there. Simply one has to take it. Just like Bhagavad-gita. Everything is there already. We have to take it, accept it, and apply it practically in life, and distribute the knowledge throughout the whole world. This is the mission of India.
So this Krsna consciousness movement is not sectarian, neither unauthorized. Because it is based on the Bhagavad-gita as it is. We don’t interpret Bhagavad-gita. If I interpret Bhagavad-gita, then there is no authority of Bhagavad-gita. The same example. Suppose state law. You cannot interpret. Then what is the value of the state law? You are a layman. You cannot interpret Bhagavad-gita. Any Vedic knowledge, you cannot interpret. Then there is no authority of the Vedic knowledge. For example… We give it very constantly. Just like cow dung. Cow dung is the stool of an animal. But Vedas says, “It is pure.” The Vedas, in one place, says that “Stool of an animal is impure.” We accept it. As soon as we touch stool, even my own stool. I have to take bath immediately to purify myself. But the Vedas says that the stool of cow is pure. We take it to the Deity room and smear it. This is Vedic followers. No interpretation. When it is stated in the Vedas, it is true, fact, perfect, without any defect. That is called Vedic knowledge. Not that interpreting to my convenience, I am, I become a Vedantist. No. That is not. So the Krsna consciousness movement is preaching that you accept what Krsna says. Sarva-dharman parityajya [Bg. 18.66]. You have manufactured so many things for the peace and prosperity of the people. But you have failed. Take Krsna’s word and you’ll be happy.
So the more you be engaged in Krsna consciousness, as Krsna says, man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. “Always think of Me.” Man-mana. Mad-bhakto. “You just become My devotee.” It is very simple thing. To become Krsna conscious is possible by everyone. And actually, it is happening. We are preaching this Krsna consciousness movement all over the world. So these boys, they’re coming from different religions, different countries, different nationalities, different faiths. But actually, because they’re accepting Krsna, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66], they’re happy. There is no difficulty. And people are accepting it. As if just they were ready to accept this cult. This is our experience. Any of our students can be questioned why he has accepted this Krsna consciousness movement. He’ll explain. So although Krsna consciousness movement is not a movement by any particular person, nation or religion, but still, because Krsna appeared in India, Lord Caitanya appeared in India… And Lord Caitanya says that anyone who has taken birth as a human being in the land of Bharatavarsa must take the responsibility of spreading this Krsna consciousness movement for the benefit of all world.
It is not a question of any personal religion or personal ambition or something manufactured by some imperfect sense enjoyer. It is authorized because Bhagavad-gita is authorized. Bhagavad-gita is accepted… First of all, He was, it was accepted by Arjuna in toto. Sarvam etad rtam manye yad vadasi kesava [Bg. 10.14]. “My dear Krsna, whatever You are saying, I accept it in toto, without any interpretation, without any rejection.” Somebody says, somebody may say, “Arjuna was Krsna’s friend. To praise Him, he might have said like that.” No. Arjuna immediately gives evidence that “It is not that I am accepting but you are accepted as, as such by such great personalities as, like Vyasadeva, Narada, Asita.” He gives authority. So that was five thousand years ago. Later on, all the acaryas, Ramanujacarya, Madhvacarya, Visnusvami, Nimbarka, even Sankaracarya. We Vaisnava acaryas, they differ little with Sankaracarya. Impersonalist and personalist. But Sankaracarya even, even though he was impersonalist, he accepted Krsna in his commentary on Bhagavad-gita. Sai bhagavan svayam krsna. So Krsna is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There is no doubt about it. By all authorities. And Krsna Himself says in the Bhagavad-gita, mattah parataram nanyat [Bg. 7.7]. “There is no more superior authority than Me.”
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
Those who are actually budhas… Budhas means learned. So they know Krsna is the original person. And it is confirmed by Brahma in the Brahma-samhita, isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1]. Isvara means controller. So everyone can become isvara. Here, our minister Saheb is present. He’s isvara. Isvara means controller. He is controller of a department. Similarly, there are many ministers in our country and other countries. Many presidents. They are isvaras. And a common man, he is also isvara. He’s controlling his family. At least he’s controlling his dog, cat. So everyone is isvara. Just like the modern theory is going on. “Everyone is God.” That’s all right. God means isvara, controller. But there are different qualities of controller. I may be controller of my disciples, a few dozen or few hundred. But there are controllers, millions. They are controlling millions. Therefore my control and his control is not equal. Therefore you find out one controller of another. Everyone is relative controller. He controls and he becomes controlled. Nobody’s absolute controller. Just like our Minister Saheb. He’s controller, but he’s also controlled. So when you come to the point, if you find out some person that he’s simply controller, not controlled, He’s Krsna. Krsna is simply controller, not controlled, He’s Krsna. Krsna is simply controller. When Krsna was present on this planet… You see the history of His life. He simply controlled. He never became controlled. He was controller. Therefore the verdict of the sastra, Vedic literature, is that isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1]. The supreme controller is Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah.
But the impersonalists will say, “The Supreme Controller is not a person.” He’s a person. But Brahma says, “No, He’s a person.” Isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-ananda-vigraha. Vigraha means person. Murti. But He’s not ordinary person. Sac-cid-ananda-vigrahah [Bs. 5.1]. Sat cit ananda. His form is made of eternity, bliss, and knowledge. Our form, this form, is not eternity. It will die. It will be finished. Why my form? Even Brahma’s form. Although he will live for many millions of years. Just like one day, twelve hours, is described in the Bhagavad-gita: sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmano viduh [Bg. 8.17]. Brahma’s one day, twelve hours, he… These four yugas, forty-three hundred thousands of years multiplied by one thousand. That is Brahma’s twelve days, uh, twelve hours. Now we can calculate his life. He’ll live for one hundred years. So his twelve hours is millions of years. So still, he will die. Anything in this material world, it will not stay. Bhutva bhutva praliyate. Everything will be finished. Therefore even Brahma’s body is not eternal. What to speak of my body, your body, ant’s body, his body… Sat. Sat means “that exists”. Om tat sat.
And cit. Cit means knowledge. So Krsna’s knowledge is perfect. Krsna says, vedaham, vedaham samatitani. “I know past, present, and future.” When Krsna was questioned by Arjuna, Krsna said that “Many millions of years ago, first of all, I spoke this science of Bhagavad-gita or bhakti-yoga, to the sun-god.” Imam vivasvate proktam vivasvan manave praha. “I spoke, first of all, to Vivasvan, the Sun god.” The Sun god’s name is there, Vivasvan. Then Krsna was questioned by Arjuna that “Krsna, You and me, we are born very recently. How is that You say that You spoke to Sun god? That is millions and millions of years ago.” So Krsna answered, “Yes, I said. I remember. But you do not remember. You were also present.” Krsna and Arjuna, they’re eternal friends. So whenever Krsna appears, Arjuna also appears. Krsna has got His associates. Arjuna is one of the associates. But the, that is the difference between living entity and God. God remembers and the living entity does not remember. He forgets. And another conclusion is: Why Krsna remembers and why the living entity does not remember? The reason is that living entity changes the body, Krsna does not change the body. Sambhavamy atma-mayaya [Bg. 4.6]. When Krsna appears, He appears in His original body, but because He looks like ordinary man, avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritam [Bg. 9.11], the rascals and fools, they think Krsna as ordinary man, human being.
So bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu is to taste the mellow of serving Krsna. That is the science of serving Krsna. Therefore we have named this book, “Nectar of Devotion.” It is summary study of bhakti-rasa, the mellow, the transcendental mellow which one can taste. Everyone is tasting. Otherwise he cannot work. So yat karosi yaj juhosi. Krsna says, “Whatever engagement you may have, kurusva tad mad-arpanam, do it for Krsna.” Don’t take the result yourself. Give it to Krsna. Then you’ll taste the rel…, relish the mellow, transcendental mellow, bhakti-rasa. And then you’ll be happy.
Just like about the Gosvamis, Rupa Gosvami, who was executing his devotional service on this spot… They were ministers. And they gave up everything. Tyaktva turnam asesa-mandala-pati-srenim. Mandala-pati. Mandala-pati means leaders. The leader of the group, mandala-pati. Just like there is rastra-pati. Similarly they were rastra-patis, mandala-pati, but tyaktva turnam asesa-mandala-pati… Because they were minister, their friendly circles were big, big zamindars, administrators. But they gave up their company. Tyakvta turnam asesa-man… Not one, two, but many. Tyaktva turnam asesa-mandala-pati-srenim sada tucchavat. Very insignificant. “Oh, what is this? Give up.” Bhutva dina-ganesakau karunaya kaupina-kanthasritau. Became very poor mendicants, accepted torn cloth. Sanatana Gosvami, Rupa Gosvami, here, in Vrndavana, they were living underneath one tree, one night. Such vairagya, renunciation. But how they were living? A very rich man, coming to the lowest standard of living…
We have seen, practically. In Calcutta, Mr. C.R. Das. he was earning, say, about fifty years ago, fifty thousand, sixty thousand rupees per month. But on Congress resolution, he gave up his practice and practically he had no income. In one meeting, he was asked by somebody… Everyone thought that he’s very big, rich man. Somebody asked him to give him, them some subscription. So C.R. Das admitted that “Now I have no income, by my party, Congress Party, they gave me five hundred rupees per month for my expenditures. So I give you everything.” So… Because that was his habit. If anyone would approach him, ask him something, the day’s income he’ll give him, immediately. But he could not live more than one year. He could not tolerate so much renouncement. Because that was material. But these Gosvamis, they gave us their ministerial posts, opulent posts and became mendicants. How they lived? Go… That is stated. Gopi-bhava-rasamrtabdhi-lahari-kallola-magnau-sada. They were merged in the ocean of the love affairs of the gopis with Krsna. Therefore this mendicantism, it was external. They were enjoying better things. So unless you enjoy better thing, you cannot give up inferior thing.
So Krsna consciousness is the best. Anyone, individually or collectively, you take it. You’ll enjoy real life. Anandamayo ‘bhyasat. That is real life. And actually, people are accepting. All over the world. Say, four days ago I was in Manila. That was the, my first visit and all young men… In the hotel we held one meeting. The hotel capacity was about eight hundred men. Still, it was overflooded. And they liked this Krsna consciousness movement, chanting, dancing. So nice. So it has been proven that this Krsna consciousness movement will be accepted in any part of the world. This is India’s culture. Why not distribute? Why the government is not interested? That is my presentation. If you, India wants to be glorified, then she must give something. Not simply begging. “Give me grains, give me money, give me weapons. Give me engineer.” Give something. That is my proposal. Then India will be glorified. “Oh, India has got something to give, not to take only, like beggars.” I was questioned in Berkeley University by some Indian students, “Swamiji, what this Krsna consciousness movement will benefit? What this sankirtana? We want technology.” So I replied, “Yes, you have come to learn here technology, but I have come here to teach you. Not to learn. But to teach. And they are learning.” So according to Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s mission, every Indian can become a teacher provided he accepts the teachings of their predecessor acaryas? Otherwise they’ll remain beggars. That is my proposal. Thank you very much. (end)